Most common form is a calcium-based stone, kidney stones can affect as many as 30% of the population at some time in their life. The single greatest risk factor is chronic dehydration or inadequate fluid intake.
After having formed in the kidney, most stones are passed without symptoms into the bladder and then out through the normal urine flow. However, if that passage encounters any problem due to size or other factors, kidney stones can be associated with severe and sudden flank (back) pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping and urinary bleeding. If untreated, they can cause infection and result in permanent kidney damage.
Treatment could involve a range of techniques:
1. Surgery to remove the stone or minimize any urinary obstruction problems that might arise.
2. Lithotripsy is a technique developed that breaks up the kidney stones using external shock (sound) waves allowing smaller stone fragments to be passed in the urine without surgery
3. Several medications can limit the appearance or growth of kidney stones but require dosing multiple times a day.
The best and simplest management is preventative and involves ensuring adequate fluid intake (typically more than 2 liters or 68 onces of water) daily!